CHEM 1412
General Chemistry II

Western Texas College

  1. Basic Course Information
    1. Lecture—Chemical equilibrium; phase diagrams and spectrometry; acid-base concepts; thermodynamics; kinetics; electrochemistry; nuclear chemistry; an introduction to organic chemistry and descriptive inorganic chemistry.
    2. Lab— the required laboratory activities will reinforce the lecture material; introduction of the scientific method, experimental design, data collection and analysis, and preparation of laboratory reports.
    3. Any required prerequisites:  Need a C or higher in CHEM 1411.
    4. Required grade for enrolling in the next course in this sequence: None
  2. Student Learning Outcomes
    1. Lecture
    2. State the characteristics of liquids and solids, including phase diagrams and spectrometry.
    3. Articulate the importance of intermolecular interactions and predict trends in physical properties.
    4. Identify the characteristics of acids, bases, and salts, and solve problems based on their quantitative relationships.
    5. Identify and balance oxidation-reduction equations, and solve redox titration problems.
    6. Determine the rate of reaction and its dependence on concentration, time, and temperature.
    7. Apply the principles of equilibrium to aqueous systems using LeChâtelier’s Principle to predict the effects of concentration, pressure, and temperature changes on equilibrium mixtures.
    8. Analyze and perform calculations with the thermodynamic functions, enthalpy, entropy, and free energy.
    9. Discuss the construction and operation of galvanic and electrolytic electrochemical cells, and determine standard and non-standard cell potentials.
    10. Define nuclear decay processes.
    11. Describe basic principles of organic chemistry and descriptive inorganic chemistry.
  3. Lab
    1. Use basic apparatus and apply experimental methodologies used in the chemistry laboratory.
    2. Demonstrate safe and proper handling of laboratory equipment and chemicals.
    3. Conduct basic laboratory experiments with proper laboratory techniques.
    4. Make careful and accurate experimental observations.
    5. Relate physical observations and measurements to theoretical principles.
    6. Interpret laboratory results and experimental data, and reach logical conclusions.
    7. Record experimental work completely and accurately in laboratory notebooks and communicate experimental results clearly in written reports.
    8. Design fundamental experiments involving principles of chemistry and chemical instrumentation.
    9. Identify appropriate sources of information for conduction laboratory experiments involving principles of chemistry.
  4. Testing Requirements
    1. Campus
      1. Students are not allowed to use their book or notes of any kind while taking their proctored tests and exams. A periodic table will be provided.
      2. Students are allowed to use a calculator.                     
    2. Online
      1. The midterm and final exam must be proctored by an approved testing organization. (Ask your instructor for more details.)
      2. Students are not allowed to use their book or notes of any kind while taking their proctored tests and exams. A periodic table will be provided.
      3. Students are allowed to use a calculator.
  5. Course Requirements
    1. Campus/Online
    • Lecture: homework assignments; weekly quizzes; midterm and final exam
    • Lab: lab reports, lab quizzes; final exam
    • Quizzes and exams are timed.
  1. Information on Books and Other Course Materials
    1. Required Book:  Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 5th Edition. Tro, Nivaldo J. 2020. Pearson. (ISBN: 9780134874371)
    2. Required Access Code: MasteringChemistry access code is bundled with book.
    3. Required Lab Kit (ONLINE ONLY): General Chemistry 2. Hands- On Learning. (SKU: Kit SP-3006-CK-02).  Please contact the WTC bookstore to purchase the kit.
    4. Required Calculators: scientific calculator
    5. Recommended: Quick Study Academic: Chemistry. Jackson, Mark. D. (ISBN: 978-142321859-3)
    6. Recommended: Quick Study Academic: Chemistry 2. Gardner, Jane. P. (ISBN: 978-142323304-6)
    7. Recommended: Quick Study Academic: Chemistry Equations & Answers. Jackson, Mark. D. (ISBN: 978-142320189-2)
  2. Grading Breakdown
    1. Campus/Online

    Lecture Homework                  10%
    Lecture Quizzes                       10%
    Lecture Midterm                      25%
    Lecture Final Exam                 25%
    Lab Reports                             15%
    Lab Final Exam                       15%

    1. A final semester grade will be based as follows:

    A = 89.5% and above
    B = 79.5 – 89.49
    C = 69.5 – 79.49
    D = 59.5 – 69.49
    F = 59.49% and below
    I = Incomplete (failure to complete the requirements of the course)

  3. Other Policies, Procedures and important dates. Please refer to the WTC Catalog for the following:
    1. Campus Calendar
    2. Final exam schedule
    3. How to drop a class
    4. Withdrawal information
    5. Student Conduct/Academic Integrity
    6. Students with disabilities

VIII.    Course Content

Chapter 7: Thermochemistry

Chemical Hand Warmers
The Nature of Energy: Key Definitions
The Frist Law of Thermodynamics: There is No Free Lunch
Quantifying Heat and Work
Measuring DE for Chemical Reactions: Constant-Volume Calorimetry
Enthalpy: The Heat Evolved in a Chemical Reaction at Constant Pressure
Constant- Pressure Calorimetry: Measuring DHrxn
Relationships Involving DHrxn
Determining Enthalpies of Reaction from Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Energy Use and Environment

Chapter 12: Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces

Water, No Gravity
Solids, Liquids, and Gases: A molecular Comparison
Intermolecular Forces: The Force that Hold Condensed States Together
Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension, Viscosity, and Capillary Action
Vaporization and Vapor Pressure
Sublimation and Fusion
Heating Curve for Water
Phase Diagrams
Water: An Extraordinary Substance

Chapter 13: Solids and Modern Materials

Friday Night Experiments: The Discovery of Graphene
X-Ray Crystallography
Unit Cells and Basic Structures
The Fundamental Types of Crystalline Solids
The Structures of Ionic Solids
Network Covalent Atomic Solids: Carbon and Silicates
Ceramics, Cement, and Glass
Semiconductors and Band Theory
Polymers and Plastics

Chapter 14: Solutions

Thirsty Solutions: Why You Shouldn’t Drink Seawater
Types of Solutions and Solubility
Energetics of Solution Formation
Solution Equilibrium and Factors Affecting Solubility
Expressing Solution Concentration
Colligative Properties: Vapor Pressure Lowering, Freezing Point Depression,      Boiling Point Elevation, and Osmotic Pressure
Colligative Properties of Strong Electrolyte Solutions

Chapter 15: Chemical Kinetics

Catching Lizards
The Rate of a Chemical Reaction
he Rate Law: The Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate
The Integrated Rate Law: The Dependence of Concentration on TimeThe Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate
Reaction Mechanisms

Chapter 16: Chemical Equilibrium

Fetal Hemoglobin and Equilibrium
The Concept of Dynamic Equilibrium
The Equilibrium Constant (K)
Expressing the Equilibrium Constant in Terms of Pressure
Heterogeneous Equilibria: Reaction Involving Solids and Liquids
Calculating the Equilibrium Constant from Measured Equilibrium Concentrations
The Reaction Quotient: Predicting the Directions of Change
Finding Equilibrium Concentrations
Le Châtelier’s Principle: How a system at Equilibrium Responds to Disturbances

Chapter 17: Acids and Bases

The Nature of Acids and Bases
Definitions of Acids and Bases
Acid Strength and the Acid Ionization Constant (Ka)
Autoionization of Water and pH
Finding [H3O+] and pH of Strong and Weak Acid Solutions
Base Solutions
The Acid-Base Proportions oaf Ions and Salts
Polyprotic Acids
Acid Strength and Molecular Structure
Lewis Acids and Bases
Acid Rain

Chapter 18: Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium

The Danger of Antifreeze
Buffers: solutions that resist pH Change
Buffer Effectiveness: Buffer Range and Buffer Capacity
Titrations and pH Curves
Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product Constant
Qualitative Chemical Analysis
Complex Ion Equilibria

Chapter 19: Free Energy and Thermodynamics

Cold Coffee and dead universes
Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous Processes
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy Changes Associated with State Change
Heat Transfer and Changes in the Entropy of the Surroundings
Gibb’s Free Energy
Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions: Calculating DS°rxn
Free Energy in Chemical Reactions: Calculating DG°rxn
Free Energy Change for Nonstandard States: The relationship between DG°rxn  DGrxn
Free Energy and Equilibrium: Relating DG°rxn to the Equilibrium Constant (K)

Chapter 20: Electrochemistry

Lightning and Batteries
Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations
Voltaic (or Galvanic) Cells: Generating Electricity form Spontaneous Chemical Reactions
Standard Electrode Potentials
Cell Potential, Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant
Cell Potential and Concentration
Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity
Electrolysis: Driving Nonspontaneous Chemical Reactions with Electricity
Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions

Chapter 21: Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry

Diagnosing Appendicitis
Discovery of Radioactivity
Types of Radioactivity
The Valley of stability: Predicting the Type of Radioactivity
Detecting Radioactivity
The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay and Radiometric Dating
The Discovery of Fission: The Atomic Bomb and Nuclear Power
Converting Mass to Energy: Mass Defect and Nuclear Binding Energy
Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun
Nuclear Transmutation and Transuranium Elements
The Effects of Radiation on Life
Radioactivity in Medicine and Other Applications

Chapter 22: Organic Chemistry

Fragrances and Odors
Carbon: Why it is Unique
Hydrocarbons: Compounds Containing Only Carbon and Hydrogen
Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons
Alkenes and Alkynes
Hydrocarbons Reactions
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Functional Groups
Aldehydes and Ketones
Carboxylic Acids and Esters


Last Modified: November 15, 2019